From the devastating effects of defoliants in the Vietnam War through the Nuclear Winter Scenario of the Cold War to the still largely uncatalogued effects of depleted uranium munitions, the negative environmental effects of militaries and wars have long been recognised. It is only since the 1990s, however, that links in the other direction, between environmental stress and insecurity, have begun to be clearly articulated. It is now understood, that the effects of Climate Change may be felt very rapidly, and that a range of armed conflicts may be sparked by massive refugee flows, droughts, floods, food shortages and other effects. Some argue that these effects are already being felt. As with Resource Conflicts (see above), it is a vital task for peace advocates to develop ways of handling such crises through international cooperation rather than hostility.